The Effectiveness of Albrom 100-PC DBDMH Against Three Microorganisms Under Real-Life Conditions by Northeast Laboratories, Inc. Berlin, CT
Phoenix Divina Products, LLC located in Terryville Connecticut recently released a study analyzing the effectiveness of Albrom 100-PC DBDMH,
a chemical used to disinfect the water in foot spas during the pedicure experience. Pediclear™, which is being marketed by Phoenix Divina
Products, LLC provides hair, nail & skin care products to the professional beauty industry since 1969.
Based on the data provided in this study, California’s Department of Environmental Protection now accepts Phoenix Divina Products, LLC application for registration of a disinfectant product.
SCOPE AND APPLICATION
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Albrom 100-PC Disinfectant for use with salon foot spas under real life
conditions using previously employed foot spas retired from spa service.
Normal spa conditions when operating foot spas is in the range of 95°F to 102°F at a hardness of around 100 mg/L.
SUMMARY OF METHOD
The 2.0 grams of disinfectant was tested at two different volumes, 5 gallons and 8 gallons, in two different circulating foot spas at a
temperature range of 95°F to 105°F over a 60 minute timed cycle.
Three different organisms; Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, were separately inoculated into
Tryptic Soy Broth and separately added to synthetic hard water in the foot spa. This was done to introduce a bioload into the spa system.
The organisms were circulated in the foot spa in timed cycles with and without disinfectant.
The organisms were sampled and plated at time increments starting at 95°F and ending when the foot spa reached 105°F.
Samples were plated on Petri Film, incubated, and colony forming units counted and calculated to determine log reduction of organisms.
Dissolution rates of Albrom 100-PC Disinfectant were measured using bromine levels. Bromine was determined using HACH test kits.
Bromine levels were measured under all test conditions, and determined before addition of cultures, after addition of cultures, and during
Initial chlorine present in the circulating water can interfere with initial microbiology counts. Measures taken to ensure chlorine removal of
water added to each foot spa includes a pre-filter to remove chlorine and initial measuring of chlorine levels of water in foot spa.
Biofilm present in the recirculation jets can cause unnaturally high bacteria counts if foot spa is not thoroughly cleaned before every run.
To remove any biofilm present in foot spa due to previous contact with water, Northeast Laboratories, Inc. did develop a careful cleaning procedure.
Cleaning Procedure: This cleaning method was followed before first time use and after use each day.
First Time Use:
For New Chairs and After First Time Use:
- Add 8 ounces of Jet Line Cleaner
- Circulate water 30 minutes.
- Let sit overnight
- Circulate additional 5 minutes before emptying
- Add 2 ounces of Jet Line Cleaner.
- Run for 30 minutes
- Let sit overnight
- Circulate 5 minutes before emptying
- Add 10 ml of 10% Sodium ThioSulfate to neutralize chlorine.
- Empty and rinse with 8 gallons of Chlorine Free Water
- Towel dry foot spa
- Bromine was measured at timed intervals beginning at Zero Time after Albom 100-PC Disinfectant was added to foot spa.
- 25ml of sample was developed with 1 HACH Free Chlorine Pillow specific for 25ml.
- Color was measured on a calibrated HACH Chlorine color-wheel.
- Chlorine was than converted to Bromine.
Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate
PAC is a ready made culture medium system that contains Standard Methods Nutrients, a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, and an indicator that
facilitates colony enumeration. PAC plates were used for the enumeration of aerobic bacteria at dilutions of 1-10; 1-100; 1-1,000; 1-10,000;
and 1-100,000 in Letheen Broth sampled at timed intervals using lab timer.
Petrifilm Yeast and Mold Count Plate
Petrifilm Yeast and Mold Count Plate is a ready-made culture medium that contains a cold-water-soluble gelling agent, nutrients, and an
indicator dye to provide contrast and facilitate counting. PYMC plates were used for the enumeration of fungus at dilutions of 1-10; 1-100;
1-1,000; 1-10,000; and 1-100,000 in Letheen Broth sampled at timed intervals using lab timer.
Two different foot spas were used in the analysis to eliminate any positive or negative bias associated with one foot spa.
Two analysts were involved in analysis at all times during timed runs to ensure time restraints were met and to facilitate work flow.
Controls were run to establish baselines and to determine positive or negative interferences.
Initial Chlorine levels were measured to ensure no Chlorine interference.
Initial Bacteria levels are measured before addition of Albrom 100-PC disinfectant.
A cleaning procedure was developed to ensure neutralization of disinfectant after every run and to eliminate any biofilm that may develop in the spa resulting from previous exposure to water.
Dilutions 1-10; 1-100; 1-1,000; 1-10,000; 1-100,000 were used at all time intervals to ensure countable plates in 25-250 CFU range.
Letheen Broth was used in dilutions as a neutralizing media: Recommended in AOAC for use with disinfectants, Letheen Broth will inactivate quaternary ammonium compounds and other preservatives when determining the number of bacteria present in cosmetics and other materials.
DOCUMENTATION OF PROBLEMS
The foot spas provided by Phoenix Products were unable to control the temperature on the baths to the degree requested by the State of
California, which is, using three separate temperatures in the range normally used when operating the baths at 95°F to 102°F. Our initial
thought was that temperatures would need to be brought to the operational standard and be maintained at the temperature through an outside heat
source. This was not the case; water introduced at 95°F was circulated and the temperature rose without external application of heat. Several
test runs showed that over forty-five minutes the temperature rose from 95°F to 102°F, without the application of heat. No heat source in the
unit was noted; increase in temperature appeared to be due to friction agitation heat from the pump, and/or other undetermined mechanisms.
As such, we replaced the original three temperatures originally proposed with a single run covering the range of temperature, plus the addition
of another time point at 60 minutes. The additional time will allow the spa to reach temperature of 105°F, which is likely the maximum
comfortable temperature in a spa which has been allowed to run for longer than normal.
The 60 minute mark was never actually reached since temperatures reached 105°F before the final 60 minute time point.
The HACH method for Bromine requires the use of Total Chlorine packets to measure Total Bromine levels. We were interested in only measuring
the amount of Bromine available for disinfecting foot spas. We therefore measured only Residual Bromine levels by using Free Chlorine Packets
and calculating the Free Bromine from Free Chlorine.
AOAC 990.12 – Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plate
AOAC 997.02 – Petrifilm Yeast and Mold Count Plate
AOAC 960.09 E – Synthetic Hard Water
HACH 8016 – Bromine Method
HACH 8021 – Residual (Free) Chlorine
Definitions of terms describing bacteria reductions:
||% Bacteria Reduction
Excellent effectiveness against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with log reductions ranging from 5.6 to 6.5 and 99.999% reduction of bacteria.
Excellent effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus with log reductions ranging from 5.2 to 6.5 and 99.999% reduction of bacteria.
Good effectiveness against Trichophyton mentagrophytes with log reductions ranging from 3.2 to 3.7 and 99.9% bacteria reduction